Mineral project design using ABC methodology and dynamic simulation

This work presents two innovative ways to evaluate mining projects. The first is the Activity-Based Costing Approach in mining operations with a product mix. After analyzing and collecting data from an aggregate mine located in Brazil, a cost model was built, and from that, a cost management and analysis methodology of a mine is created. This work has the innovation advantages of using ABC as a tool for planning the operation of the mine, identifying the more profitable products. The second is the use of dynamic simulation in the early stage of Front End Loading (FEL) studies of a Mining Project.  An innovative high-level dynamic modeling approach has been developed to assist in a fast evaluation of assumptions made by the study team. 

Desenvolvimento e aplicação de metodologia para estudos de simulação dinâmica na cadeia do minério de ferro

Este estudo propõe uma metodologia para a simulação dinâmica da cadeia de produção mineral. A metodologia proposta permite que modelos complexos sejam construídos rapidamente e com precisão, reduzindo os custos de estudos nas fases de projeto e possibilitando reduções mais expressivas nos custos de implantação e operação do empreendimento. A metodologia proposta abrange todas as etapas de estudo desde a formulação do problema a ser analisado até a implementação dos resultados e foi aplicada em um projeto, durante as fases de FEL 2 e 3 (Projeto Conceitual e Básico). O projeto estudado consiste da produção de produtos de minério de ferro de uma empresa de mineração em Corumbá/MS, incluindo lavra, beneficiamento e transporte do minério beneficiado por ferrovia até o porto de Santos/SP. São apresentadas as premissas, dados de entrada e conceitos para criação de um modelo que integre Pátio de Estocagem da Usina de Beneficiamento, Ferrovia e Porto, além dos dados de saídas do modelo necessários para avaliação e suas análises. Com base nos resultados obtidos foram identificados as ações que podem ser tomadas para o aumento da eficiência do trabalho de modelagem. A aplicação da metodologia proposta permitiu comprovar que um modelo integrado de simulação, envolvendo as diferentes atividades da cadeira de produção mineral, oferece uma visão global dos processos envolvidos e facilita a tomada de decisão.

Economic advantages of dynamic analysis in the  early stages of mining projects

The use of dynamic simulation is technically advantageous for the project as shown by various authors. However, is it economically advantageous in the early stages of the project (FEL1 and FEL2)? The methodology to economically evaluate the use of dynamic simulation considers the time and development cost compared with the time and cost spent to change the project in the next phase, considering changes that could be avoided with the use of dynamic simulation. Five process plant projects were evaluated, each one with an estimated CAPEX of US$ 300 million. The saved average is US$ 44,200.00 and US$ 182,400.00 for FEL 1 and FEL 2 respectively. The percentage cost savings for FEL2 (2.0%) and FEL3 (3.1%) are significant. The estimated delay avoided for FEL2 (3 weeks) and FEL3 (8 weeks) is directly related to the implementation delay, whose cost is expressively greater than the savings shown. The study concludes that the use of dynamic simulation is economically advantageous for the project.

A high-level dynamic analysis approach for studying global process plant availability and production time in the early stages of mining projects

In the early stage of front-end studies of a Mining Project, the global availability (i.e. number of hours a plant is available for production) and production (number of hours a plant is actually operated with material) time of the process plant are normally assumed based on the experience of the study team. Understanding and defining the availability hours at the early stages of the project are important for the future stages of the project, as drastic changes in work hours will impact the economics of the project at that stage. An innovative high-level dynamic modeling approach has been developed to assist in the rapid evaluation of assumptions made by the study team. This model incorporates systems or equipment that are commonly used in mining projects from mine to product stockyard discharge after the processing plant. It includes subsystems that will simulate all the component handling, and major process plant systems required for a mining project. The output data provided by this high-level dynamic simulation approach will enhance the confidence level of engineering carried out during the early stage of the project. This study discusses the capabilities of the approach, and a test case compared with standard techniques used in mining project front-end studies.

Cost modelling of the product mix from mining operations using the activity-based costing approach

This work adds the Activity-Based Costing Approach in mining operations with a product mix. After analyzing and collecting data from an aggregate mine located in Brazil, a cost model was built, and from that, a cost management and analysis methodology of a mine in operation is created. This work has the innovation advantages of using ABC as a tool for planning the operation of the mine, identifying the more profitable products. At the end, it is concluded that the creation of a cost model to be used in the operation of mining is a rewarding investment as it shows the profitable and unprofitable products.

Dynamic Simulation applied to mining

This work adds the dynamic simulation, not only in the equipments design, but in a existing operation obtaining the circuit bottlenecks and reducing OPEX. After analyzing and collecting data from a mine located in the Center-West region of Brazil, a model was built, and from that, a management and analysis methodology of a mine in operation is created. This work has the innovation advantages of using dynamic simulation as a tool for planning the operation of the mine. At the end, it is concluded that the creation of a model to be used in the study and operation of mining is a profitable investment.

Desafios para a gestão operacional de perfuração em minerações subterrâneas

Este estudo descreve um levantamento do índice de utilização das perfuratrizes em mina subterrânea, utilizando como exemplo uma mina localizada na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Discutem-se aqui ações que podem ser tomadas para o aumento do índice nas
condições atuais de trabalho da mina. Ao final, conclui-se que se a gerência da mina atuar por meio de diversas, porem pequenas, medidas de forma concomitante, consegue-se aprimorar as condições de segurança e melhorar o processo de lavra subterrânea, podendo alcançar aumentos de produtividade acima de 50%.

Desenvolvimento e análise de um modelo de simulação de um sistema integrado ferrovia-porto na cadeia do minério de ferro

Este estudo descreve uma metodologia para modelagem e análise de um sistema integrado englobando a Estocagem de Produtos de Minério de Ferro na mineração, o Transporte Ferroviário e Operações Portuárias. Na ferrovia, mostra-se a análise por setores, que diagnostica os trechos e pátios conjuntamente, permitindo encontrar os gargalos da via de maneira eficiente. No porto, mostram-se os efeitos da alteração do número de materiais armazenados. Ao final, conclui-se que, com um modelo integrado envolvendo todas as áreas do empreendimento, pode-se atingir a visão global deste, permitindo uma melhor tomada de decisões, evitando custos desnecessários.

Simulation Tools: a study of application at the Nouadhibou Port

Faster and cheaper, are two words highly prized in a project and how the companies can combine these words is the key for the best result. Besides, being an operational simulation software, it has been used as a tool in decision making, knowing that, simulation is a powerful tool to assist any project, decisions making, which can influence the progress of the project. More than that, this tool can optimize the equipments, evaluate the impact of various operations parameters and find the bottleneck in the operation.

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